The Electromagnetic Origin Of Quantum Theory And Light

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  1. Planck’s Quantum Theory
  2. Quantum Physics | Science | Khan Academy
  3. Quantum Theory timeline
  4. The Electromagnetic Origin Of Quantum Theory And Light

It shows that the topological classification can be associated not only with the Hamiltonian but also with other operators corresponding to conserved physical quantities.

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Facebook Twitter Print. Reference Konstantin Y. Schematic showing the origin of surface Maxwell waves. Lewis proposes the name "photon" for a light quantum.

Planck’s Quantum Theory

Certain materials had been observed to emit electrons beta decay. Since both the atom and the nucleus have discrete energy levels, it is hard to see how electrons produced in transition could have a continuous spectrum see for an answer. Werner Heisenberg formulates the uncertainty principle: the more you know about a particle's energy, the less you know about the time of the energy and vice versa.

The same uncertainty applies to momenta and coordinates. Paul Dirac combines quantum mechanics and special relativity to describe the electron.

Quantum Physics | Science | Khan Academy

Quantum mechanics and special relativity are well established. There are just three fundamental particles: protons, electrons, and photons.

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Max Born , after learning of the Dirac equation, said, "Physics as we know it will be over in six months. Wolfgang Pauli suggests the neutrino to explain the continuous electron spectrum for beta decay. Paul Dirac realizes that the positively-charged particles required by his equation are new objects he calls them "positrons".

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They are exactly like electrons, but positively charged. This is the first example of antiparticles. James Chadwick discovers the neutron. The mechanisms of nuclear binding and decay become primary problems. Enrico Fermi puts forth a theory of beta decay that introduces the weak interaction. This is the first theory to explicitly use neutrinos and particle flavor changes. Hideki Yukawa combines relativity and quantum theory to describe nuclear interactions by an exchange of new particles mesons called "pions" between protons and neutrons.

Some light quantum mechanics (with minutephysics)

From the size of the nucleus, Yukawa concludes that the mass of the conjectured particles mesons is about electron masses. This is the beginning of the meson theory of nuclear forces.

Quantum Theory timeline

A particle of electron masses is discovered in cosmic rays. While at first physicists thought it was Yukawa's pion, it was later discovered to be a muon. The stability of the proton cannot be explained in terms of energy or charge conservation; he proposes that heavy particles are independently conserved. Moller and Abraham Pais introduce the term "nucleon" as a generic term for protons and neutrons.

The Electromagnetic Origin Of Quantum Theory And Light

Physicists realize that the cosmic ray particle thought to be Yukawa's meson is instead a "muon," the first particle of the second generation of matter particles to be found. This discovery was completely unexpected -- I. Rabi comments "who ordered that? A meson that does interact strongly is found in cosmic rays, and is determined to be the pion.