Organizational Principles for Multi-Agent Architectures

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Ebooks and eBook visitors provide substantial benefits above traditional reading.

Agent-based simulation in management and organizational studies: a survey

Ebooks reduce down on the use of paper, as recommended by environmental enthusiasts. There are no fixed timings for study. There is usually no question of waiting-time for new editions. There is no transportation in order to the eBook shop. The books in an eBook store can be downloaded quickly, sometimes for free, occasionally to get a fee.

Citations per year

Not merely that, the online variation of books are usually cheap, because publication homes save on their print in addition to paper machinery, the benefits of which are transferred to customers. Further, typically the reach of the e-book shop is immense, enabling a person living in Australia to source out in order to a publication house in Chicago.

The newest craze in the online e-book world is what are known as eBook libraries, or e-book packages. An eBook package deal is something out of the ordinary. This consists of a large number of ebooks bundled up together that are not really easily available at one individual place. In ABS there is no global communication or information.

This allows a more realistic representation of the complex nature of organizational and economic systems. ABS can depict natural and artificial environments Cioffi-Revilla, Natural environments may include topological, climatic, biological and hydrological elements while artificial ones encompass manmade systems like roads, and power and telecommunications networks.

Several frameworks and platforms have been developed for this end. ABS can be considered an approach to modeling, a computational tool, a methodological framework or an analytic method. However, it is better understood as a new paradigm of computational thinking that is decentralized, interactive, dynamic, generative and emergent Wilensky and Rand, ; Epstein, Its foundations are not so much technical or technological, but scientific and philosophical.

In consequence, ABS is technically simple but conceptually deep Bonabeau, The use of simulation in management and organizational studies is not new Berends and Romme, The novelty of ABOS derives from the use of agents for understanding and managing complexity and uncertainty in organizations. From the conceptual and epistemological point of view, ABOS is rooted in computational social science Cioffi-Revilla, , generative social science Epstein, , computational organization theory Frantz et al.

ABOS overlaps with growing fields like agent-based computational economics Tesfatsion and Judd, and agent-based computational sociology Squazzoni, While other fields emphasize the comprehension and explanation of systems and processes, ABOS emphasizes decision making and problem-solving. We present a non-systematic survey of the main areas in ABOS encompassing articles published between and Selected books and conference proceedings were included as well. From articles, were selected, based on titles, abstracts and keywords see Table I.

Figure 1 shows that most applications are in operations and logistics 37 percent , marketing 17 percent and organizational behavior 14 percent. The study of organizational behavior underscores the versatility of ABS.

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It has been used to understand behavior of organizations in a market and the behavior of agents within an organization. Thus, organizations can be considered agents or environments. Organizations as agents have been studied in business networks and innovation. Prenkert and Folgesvold , for instance, found that in an international business network the topology of the net affects the intensity of commercial relationships. Other publications focused on innovation found that companies with similar technological conditions can occupy very different market positions.

Particularly, Ciarli et al. Literature on organizations as agents encompasses areas such as analysis of market conditions, the knowledge society Mollona and Hales, or the study of populations of companies. The use of ABS to study interactions within organizations has been centered around the diffusion of knowledge Wang et al.

It has also been used to study the result of these diffusion processes, for example, the emergence of a changing organizational identity Rousseau and Van der Veen, Jiang et al. Contributions in organizational psychology Hughes et al. We found several applications on organizational decision making. Sun and Naveh computationally recreated organizational dynamics that have been studied empirically for decades. The simulation showed that decisions made in non-hierarchical teams have better outcomes than those made in hierarchical structures.

Similarly, they show that organizations with free access to information perform better than those with restricted access. Forkmann et al. They found that although dominant strategies are favored by CEOs, these strategies do not necessarily yield the best results over time. This shows that the mismatch between empirically derived decisions made by managers and the effect that these strategies have on their businesses.

These results underscore the need for decision-making tools. Kodia et al. North et al. The model helped guide organizational decisions leading to significant savings in operation costs.

Bibliographic Information

It has provided some evidence of some pitfalls in previous approaches to the process of innovation, such neglecting human subjectivity. Mild and Taudes presented a model that showed that guided-search methods in which the companies decide hierarchically the features of a new product, are less successful that decentralized strategies such as trial and error. The model suggests that a larger knowledge-base of prototypes or alternatives, the more likely it is to develop new products. Similarly, Zhong and Ozdemir claimed that group structure affects the speed of innovation processes.

Zhang et al. Finally, Maisenbacher et al. They also laid out the most promising lines of research regarding the use of ABS for product development. Applications in logistics are some of the earliest used of ABOS. The first models date back to the early s Santa-Eulalia et al. Then, perhaps unsurprisingly, most ABS in business and management are to-date in this area.

ABS used to add dynamism to the implementation of the productive processes. The work of Renna proved that, in a dynamic context, an ABS performs better that traditional methods regarding throughput time, throughput, work in process, machines average utilization and tardiness. ABS has increased its popularity in the transportation.

Currently, there are some ABS platforms built exclusively to deal with transport tasks. The most popular, according to Zheng et al.

Organizational Principles for Multi-Agent Architectures

ABS had a great impact in this area because traditional approaches do not capture the complexities of current logistic markets. They are unable to account for external perturbations, such as changes in policy or traffic flows Cavalcante and Roorda, ABS provide a way to overcome these problems, thanks to its flexibility Kavicka et al.

In air logistics, Bouarfa et al. Their work showed that some high-level risks in air safety cannot be identified or managed with traditional warning systems. Other applications in transportation and logistics are cross-docking optimization Suh, and the implementation of shared parking strategies to reduce traffic and pollution in a food transport network Boussier et al. Risk management in supply networks is also a common topic in the literature. Chen et al. According to these authors, the volatility of the environment and its increasing complexity has made that up to 75 percent of the operation costs depends on the management of the supply network.

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Analogously, some authors have studied the impact of local processes on global economic behavior, focusing on dynamics and systemic risks that affect the value chain Mizgier et al. There are also several ABS applications in healthcare logistics. Friesen and McLeod describe the most common application in this domain and also provide some suggestion regarding its use. In turn, Denton surveys several case studies and provides a more comprehensive review of ABS and other methods used in healthcare logistics. Most ABS in this direction focuses on optimization.

There are, however, many other applications. Liu and Wu , develop a model about a payment model that increases accountability in health organizations. Finally, some of the most recent applications seek to provide common logistic frameworks. Long and Zhang implemented a model to analyze the global behavior of the supply network.

This model integrates production, inventory and transportation, enabling the exploration of the system at different levels and granularity. The model is reusable and scalable, reducing computational costs and computing time. ABS has been used in marketing, both inside and outside academia Rand, Hence, there are two major trends in the literature: case studies documented by consultants and academic research encompassing theory and practice.

03-01 Agent Architectures

Case studies published by consultants e. Icosystem o Ignite Technologies include organizations in different economic sectors. The former has used simulation to quantify the release of several products on media and social networks. In order to protect clients, consultants often restrict access to sensitive information but publish most of their results. Concentric — an ABS consulting firm — claims that it was able to predict the number of subscriptions for a video streaming website with less than 1 percent error.

It used detailed data from previous years to calibrate the model. The company has also implemented a simulation for a coffee firm experiencing a decrease in sales in which market dynamics were replicated with less than 2. With this model, it was able to determine that the best strategy was to improve the product experience and increase marketing in stores. Similarly, Ignite Technologies increased the return on investment of a packed goods company by 15 percent using the same principle. A literature review by Negahban and Yilmaz included 80 articles, out of 11,, in which ABS was used.

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It discusses emergent phenomena and the overall results of using ABS for market research.